Although laboratories offer a bouquet of tests, there may be quite a few among them that are not necessary. The tests required for health screening depend on the age, presence of disease specific risk factors and population prevalence of diseases among others. Below the age of 25 years, in a generally healthy individual without additional risk factors, routine testing is not required.
Between 25 & 40 years, a basic health screen is usually offered as part of a pre-employment screen and would include a clinical history and physical examination, complete blood count or hemogram, urine routine examination, Blood sugar fasting, chest X-ray, ECG and ultrasound abdomen. Thyroid testing (TSH) and virology (Hepatitis B) are discretionary and depend on the requirements of the employer/individual. If no abnormality is found, repeat testing is recommended every 2–3 years or earlier if new health-related symptoms develop.
Above the age of 40, in addition to the basic tests, screening generally includes lipid profile, liver function tests, kidney function tests, HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), Echocardiogram or TMT (treadmill test). In case of any known disease, specific tests related to the organ/disease are added on. These tests are generally repeated every 1–2 years or earlier if any new health issue is suspected.